Doordarshan INTERNSHIP

Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering

Report of Internship at Doordarshan Studios

Activity: Internship

Title: Internship at Doordarshan Studios

Date: 17th to 22nd December, 2018

Number of students participated: 13

Year: T.E./B.E.

Industry: Doordarshan Studios

Details:

DAY 1:

In Doordarshan, there are various different sections such as

  • Studio :

  1. Old A Studio

  2. A1 Studio

  3. B1 Studio

  4. C1 Studio

  5. CB Studio

  • MSR (Master Switching Room ) / MCR (Mater Control Room)

  • VTR/ Playback(Server Room)

  • Dimmer

  • A/C plant

  • ENG (Electronics news gathering)

  • OB Van Section (Outdoor Broadcasting Van)

Generally used for cricket matches

  • CAR (Central Apparatus Room)

Introduction

Doordarshan Kendra, Mumbai was inaugurated on 2nd October 1972. It elaborates program production facilities and large studio. The transmission was initially limited to few hours in a day. Besides the regional language Marathi, programs in hindi, urdu, English, sindhi and even Punjabi were also telecasted. DD Sahyadri Kendra telecasted its programs under the brand name DD Sahyadri. The channel was launched in 1994 as RLSS Marathi. Then new Studio was launched on the 2nd Of JUNE, 1999.

DD Sahyadri is number one channel among all others. GEC available in Maharashtra as per TAM.

Doordarshan Kendra produces a wide spectrum of programs including acclaimed serials, film based programs, documentaries, musical programs, reality shows, cookery shows, news, current affairs programs, informative programs, agricultural and civic issues.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION ON STUDIOS:

1. OLD A Studio

Before the inauguration of new building oi n2002, studios of DD Sahyadri were present in old building. After construction of new building all studios were transferred in it. Still sometimes old Studios from old building are used. They are combined called as Old A Studio.

2. A1 Studio:

It is fully high definition studio that means all high definitions shots can be recorded here.

Dolby Digital Surround Sound 5.1 System is installed in A1 Studio for better audio recording.

Dolby 5.1 digital surround sound system in these low frequencies are separated and given to the low frequency enhancer which amplify the signal.

3. B1 Studio:

B1 studio is standard definition studio. It is also used for interview, drama, small programs. Basically it is used for “Maha Charcha Program”. In this more than 3 persons are involved as guests.

4. C1 Studio:

It is used for live programs as well as small interview. Virtual set up is designed in C1 studio for such programs.

During these programs the set of lighting and cameras remain the same.

  1. CB Studio:

CB studio is a SD studio used for “Metro-scan” programs, which has news of metro cities.

DAY2:

Basic diagram of studio chain

  • Camera converts image or video in electrical form and mic converts sound energy ion electrical energy. CCU adjusts the brightness, contrast, white balance, etc.

  • Central Apparatus Room (CAR): is a heart of any studio because al types of data passes through it and output also is taken from CAR in digital Systems. But in Analog output is taken from particular panes.

  • Now the connection between camera and CCU is made possible by using special wires

  • SD Camera – Standard Deviation

If SD Camera is used then it is connected by triax cable.

  • HD Camera – High Deviation

If HD Camera is used then it is connected by Fibre Optic Cable.

-VM combines outputs of VTR, Virtual set, scroll and graphics and gives output as PGM.

-Audio mixer provides audio output. PGM and audio output are embedded to store in recorder.

Recorder is a device in which data is stored as per requirement.

  • If Analog recorder is used then Beta Film implemented.

  • For Digital DVC (Digital Video Cassettes) used

  • For HD Blue ray or SSD(Solid State Device Used)

COMPONENTS OF STUDIO:

  1. CAMERA

  2. MIC

  3. SET

  4. ARTIST

  5. TECHNICAL STAFF

  1. CAMERA:

It plays an important role in the process of capturing image or shooting the video.

The main parameter is shutter which is considered while choosing camera.

Shutter speed having unit seconds or fraction of seconds.

The purpose of camera lens is to focus the optical energy at face plate of pick up device that is Forman Optical Image.

R, G, B are the three basic colors.

Formula: y=0.3R+0.5G+0.11B

  1. Microphones:

All we know that microphone is an acoustic to electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal.

TYPES of Microphones:

-condenser microphone

– Dynamic microphone

-Ribbon microphone

– Piezo electric microphone

– Laser microphone

– Fiber Optic microphone

*Condenser Microphone ; the output depends on the variation in distance between the two plates due to the movement of the moving plates, here the power supply is given from audio panel as well as output is also taken from the same audio panel.

*Dynamic Microphones; Magnet has gap in which coil can fit perfectly and can move forward and backward. When the pressure is applied on the diaphragm, the coil starts moving in back and front directions and due to movement of coil and its interaction with magnetic force, current is generated as output.

3. Set: – sets are defined as background applied to news, live shows, etc.

Sets can be virtual, real. Virtual are created by graphics and other digital processes.

4. Artist: – Artists are most important part of studio because without them many programs cannot be performed. They can be makeup artists, musicians, anchors, etc.

5. Technical Staff:-

It takes care of set as well as provides necessary accessories to the artists. They communicate with the control room and provide necessary details or instructions to the narrator.

DAY 3:

Various Sections:

  1. MSR(Master Switching Room):

It is used for transmission media. It is the heart of the studio. Each and Every type of data passes through it. The main function is monitoring and routing. The MSR cannot be bypassed.

  1. VTR/Playback:

In the playback room commercials are given directly the MSR. There are different types of tapes in playback room as: βeta, Blueray, SSD, Server, etc.

  1. Dimmer:

Dimmer are devices connected to light Fixture & used to cover the brightness of light. Here keylight is most important. The amount of keylight determines the video quality. Fill light is used to fill up shadows. Backlight is used to sense the depth of an object.

  1. A/C Plant:

It is used to maintain low temperatures in certain rooms. Certain equipment and studios have complex lighting.

  1. ENG(Electronic News Gathering):

It is used to store cameras and other devices used during recording.

  1. OB Van Section:

If there is an event happening that cannot be shot inside a studio then an outside broadcasting or OB crew & van is called in for events such as sports, live functions, indoor concerts are all covered using OB facilities.

OB Van & DSNG van work under OB Section.

  1. CAR(Central Apparatus Room):

CAR usually houses audio & video; router video serves compressors & multiplexers, uplink digital processing synchronizer audio path panel & video patch panel. It is the heart of the studio because all data types pass through it.

Lighting:

In Studio, 3-point lighting technique is a standard method used in visual media such as video film, still photography and computer-generated imagery. Basic 3-point lighting is:

  1. Key light- It gives shape and modeling by a casting window. This is main light, it is usually the strongest and has the most influence on the look of the screen. It is placed to one side of the camera. The subject is to the other side, it is well lit thus it also has the same shadow.

  2. Backlight- It is placed behind the subject it lights from the rear. Its purpose is to properly define and subtle highlight around the subject outline.

  1. Fill light- Control the lighting contrast by filling in shadows. It can provide catch light in the eyes.

White Balance:

It basically means colour balance. It tells the camera what colour white looks like. So the camera will record it correctly. Since white light is the Sun of all other colours the camera will then display all colours correctly.

Black Balance:

It is an operation similar to white balance. As white balance gives the Camera reference to “true white”, black balance gives reference to “true black”. Generally 1φ supply is used for supplying power to lights but since in studio, there are numerous lights so 3φ supply is used and also the lamp has resistive load. Nowadays sodium lamps are used since they are efficient.

DAY 4:

Transmission Chain:

Inputs of MSR are all studios(A1, 1, CB) except C1 studio. Recordings, servers, edit suit, etc. There are 4 types of transmission uplink from MSR to transmitter which are:

  • Terrestial

  • Satellite

  • Mumbai Feed

  • Mumbai Feed News

Output of transmitter goes to either tower or satellite. DSNG/OB Van uplinks directly with satellite DSNG/OB Van doesn’t deal with downlink. After uplink, MSR deals with downlink.

There are 4 types of transmission downlink from TX to MSR i.e. (OB1, OB2, OB3, Clean Feed) . If we want to transmit any recording news from Mumbai to other place then we transmit(uplink) through Mumbai’s Feed or Mumbai Feed News respectively.

AC PLANT:

In this system, the huge compressor and the condenser are housed in the plant room while the air handling unit(AHU) are housed in a separate room. In Doordarshan chilled water central Air Conditioning plant is used. It has the plant room where all the important units like the compressor, condenser, throttling valve and evaporator are housed. The evaporator is shell and tube on the tube side the frean fluid passes at extremely low temperature, while on the shell side the brine solution is passed. After passing through the evaporator the brine solution gets chilled and is pumped to the various air handling unit at different floors of the building. The air handling units comprise the cooling coil through which the chilled brine flows and the blower.

The cool air is then supplied to space to be cooled through the ducts. The brine solution which has absorbed the room heat comes back to the evaporator gets chilled and is again pumped back to the air handling unit.

DAY 5:

Transmitter:

In transmitter section, there are 2 types of transmitters one is DTT( Digital Terrestrial Television) broadcasting and second is Earth station transmission. In DTT it allows the transmission of about 10 or more digital services in a single transmitter.

In DTT the DVB is used to transmit the digital video broadcasting is sent to the satellite. There are transponders in satellite.

The signals from MSR(Master Switching Room) are provided in SDI(Serial Digital Interface).

Format: The SDI input is given to encoder or embedder and simultaneously IRD Signal also come there then they are encoded to the mux.

Mux is then combining inputs and provide it to the pnu router from pnu the signal is given to driver unit and then signal is forwarded to IPA( Intermediate Power Amplifier) where low intensity signal get amplified to provide satellite. DIT is very useful in terrestrial transmission as the signals are sending to c band where signals will not get interfered with the noise or other signals. The uplink for DTT is 6GHz.

Earth Station:

It is an another part of transmitter section by DTT we can watch television on the smartphones and mobile phones while Earth stations provide signals to the DTH or Domestic network. The Earth station there are 3 important parameters we have to set for communicating with geostationary satellite are as follows:

  1. Azimuthal Angle: This angle is the angle at which the satellite is settled from North.

  2. Elevation: The height where the satellite is settled.

  3. Polarization: The circular polarization used for the transmission through earth station.

In earth station transmitter, the signals from DSNG then MSR room used for stamping the signal from DSNG then MSR room is used for stamping the signal from satellite is downlinked then in TLT signal then forwarded to the satellite again for transmission.